India is the seventh largest country in the world by geographical area and it is on number 2 in the world when it comes to population and rainfalls. There is a strange relationship between the other two.
We have so much rainfall but then why is India experiencing water shortage? Unfortunately, there is an ecological imbalance on the global scale. India is one of the eight countries which is seriously facing a sharp increase in water crisis that threatens humans, a huge percentage of the world has no access to sanitation and clean water.
The average person only needs 20 or 30 liters of water, while every Indian consumes a bigger amount everyday for different purposes. Additionally, overpopulation and pollution have also been a cause of water poverty in India.
It also warned that the crisis are only going to get worse by 2030, the country’s water demand is projected to be twice the available supply, implying severe water scarcity for hundreds of millions of people.
Currently, 600 million Indians face high to extreme water stress and about 200,000 thousand people die every year due to inadequate access to safe water, said the NITI Aayog report on Composite Water Management Index (CWMI).
The report ranks Gujarat at the top in managing its water resources in the reference year (2016-17) followed by Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharashtra.
The worst states include Jharkhand, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.
According to India’s official Ground Water Resources Assessment, more than one-sixth of the country’s groundwater supply is currently overused, which is forcing cities to go for temporary measures like water imports which has economic implications.
According to the World Bank’s study, water scarcity can affect long-term economic growth prospects. Water scarcity will cost India 6 per cent of its GDP if the country continues to mismanage water resources by 2050. The major impact will be on health, agriculture, income and property.
Five of the cities likely to face severe water shortage in the next few decades are in India.They are: Delhi, Kolkata, Bangalore, Chennai, and Hyderabad in the order of current population.
The current total population of these five cities comes to around 67.5 million. By 2050, the region colored blue will have around 20 per cent more water. India, too, might have more water but urbanization will increase the population in Indian cities, thereby causing a situation called ‘absolute water scarcity’.